IJREE – Volume 4 Issue 3 Paper 2


Author’s Name :  C.Sakthivel

Volume 04 Issue 03  Year 2017  ISSN No: 2349-2503  Page no: 4-7



The use of nanostructures in photo voltaics offers the potential for high efficiency by either using new physical mechanisms or by allowing solar cells which have efficiencies closer to their theoretical maximum, for example by tailoring material properties. At the same time, nanostructures have potentially low fabrication costs, Moving to structures or materials which can be fabricated using chemically or biologically formed materials. Despite this potential, there are multiple and significant challenges


  1. A. Luque, and A. Martí, “A Metallic Intermediate Band High Efficiency Solar Cell,” Progress in Photo voltaics, vol. 9, p. 73-86, (2001).
  2. R.T. Ross, “Efficiency of hot-carrier solar energy converters,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 53, no. 5,p. 3813-18, (1982).
  3. C.B. Honsberg,”Approaches for Ultra-High Efficiency
    Solar Cells,” Proceedings DOE Solar Program Review, November, 2004.
  4. P. Wurfel, “Thermodynamic limitations to solar energy conversion,” Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nano structures, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 18-26, (2002).
  5. R.D. Schaller, and V.I. Klimov, “High efficiency carrier multiplication in PbSe nano crystals: implications for no.31,p.7578-7580, (2002).2568 solar energy conversion,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 92, no. 18, p. 186601/1-4, (2004).
  6. R.J. Ellingson, M.C. Beard, J.C. Johnson, P. Yu, O.I. Micic, A.J. Nozik, A. Shabaev, and A.L. Efros, “Highly Efficient Multiple Exciton Generation in Colloidal PbSe and PbS Quantum Dots,” Nano Letters, vol. 5, no. 5, p.873 – 878, (2005).
  7. N.J.Ekins-Daukes, C.B.Honsberg, M.Yamaguchi, s“Signature of Intermediate Band Materials from Luminescence Measurements,” Proceedings of the 31st Photo voltaic Specialists Conference, Orlando, 49-54, (2005).
  8. R. Plass, S. Pelet, J. Krueger, M. Gratzel, U. Bach,“Quantum dot sensitization of organic-inorganic hybrid